Tissue-Based Immunohistochemical Markers for Diagnosis and Classification of Renal Cell Carcinoma
The development and description of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes has led to an increase in demand for tissue biomarkers. This has implications not only in informing diagnosis, but also in guiding treatment selection and in prognostication. Although historically, many immunohistochemical (IHC) stains have been widely characterized for RCC subtypes, challenges may arise in interpreting these results. These may include variations in tumor classification, specimen collection and processing, and IHC techniques. In light of the reclassification of RCC subtypes in 2016, there remains a requirement for a comprehensive outline of tissue biomarkers that may be used to differentiate between RCC subtypes and distinguish these from other non-renal neoplasms. In this review, concise summaries of the commonest RCC subtypes, including clear cell, papillary, and chromophobe RCC, have been provided. Important differences have been highlighted between chromophobe RCC and renal oncocytomas. An overview of the current landscape of tissue biomarkers in other RCC subtypes has also been explored, revealing the variable staining results reported for some markers, whilst highlighting the essential markers for diagnosis in other subtypes.
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