Epidemiology and Clinical Characteristics of Urogenital Tuberculosis in Sabah, Malaysia
Objectives: We aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB)
in Sabah, Malaysia.
Methods: We performed a retrospective, descriptive study based on medical records of UGTB cases identified
between January 1, 2014, and November 30, 2020.
Results: We identified 131 cases of UGTB in Sabah. Patient gender was balanced except for a mild male
predominance in the 35 to 44 age group. No cases were reported in children. The majority of the patients (96%)
were diagnosed in the government facility. Among the UGTB cases, 72% of patients were from rural areas, and 29%
were illiterate. The commonest presentation was frequency of micturition (28%), followed by abdominal pain (26%)
and loss of appetite (26%). The common sites included renal (32%) and scrotal (25%). Diagnosis was achieved via
histopathology in 39.7% of patients and smear microscopy in 35.9%. Anti-tubercular treatment duration was 8.6
(±SD 4.0) months, and 81% of patients have completed treatment. A total of 50.4% of patients had received surgical
intervention; 10.7% had undergone incision and drainage, 9.9% had cystoscopy, and 6.9% underwent orchidectomy.
Conclusion: UGTB has varied non-specific symptoms, which poses a diagnostic challenge, leading to morbidity.
Ensuring awareness via widespread education within government and private health care, along with rural outreach
programs, will contribute to early recognition and treatment.
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