Incidence and Predictors of Secondary Upper Tract Urothelial Cancer in Patients with High-Risk Non-Muscle Invasive Urinary Bladder Cancer and its Impact on Imaging Surveillance: A Retrospective Analysis with 1501 Patients
Objectives: We aimed to study the incidence and predictors of upper tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) in patients with high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC).
Methods: Patients who had HR-NMIBC were reviewed to identify those who subsequently developed UTUC.
Complete transurethral resection was performed, and biopsies were collected for histopathology followed by
intravesical chemoimmunotherapy. Patients were screened annually by computed tomography (CT) for UTUC.
Results: Data for 1501 patients were reviewed. UTUC developed in 59 (4%) after a median of 20 months
after HR-NMIBC. Most patients were symptomatic, but UTUC was discovered on routine follow-up imaging
in 28%. On bivariate analysis, only multiple bladder tumors and the number of bladder recurrences
were predictors for UTUC (P = 0.01 and P = 0.008, respectively). Multiple bladder tumors and ≥ 3 bladder
recurrences remained significant on multivariable analysis.
Conclusion: UTUC after HR-NMIBC is uncommon (4%). Despite routine follow-up CT imaging, recurrence
was detected due to symptoms in most patients, and based on imaging only in 28%. Imaging surveillance can be prioritized in patients with multiple bladder tumors and those with ≥ 3 bladder recurrences. For the other patients, the benefit of imaging surveillance has to be weighed against the risks.
The Société International d'Urologie (SIU), which owns and publishes the Société International d'Urologie Journal (SIUJ), does not require authors of papers published in the journal to transfer copyright. Instead, we ask authors to grant an exclusive licence that allows us to publish the article in SIUJ (and any derivative or related products or publications) and that allows us to sub-license such rights and exploit all subsidiary rights.
Authors retain the right to use their own articles for their own non-commercial purposes without seeking explicit permission from SIU.
The SIUJ publication licence expressly defines “non-commercial” as “not primarily intended for or directed towards commercial advantage or monetary compensation.” Although no activity is completely disconnected from commercial activity, the following are generally considered to be non-commercial uses:
- Reproduction of a reasonable number (no more than 100) of print copies of the published paper for personal use (e.g., sharing with colleagues, including in grant applications).
- Posting a copy of the published version of the paper on the author’s own or their institution’s website. The article must be accompanied by this statement: ‘This article has been published in the SIUJ: [full citation; link]’.
- Inclusion of the paper in a course pack, with a maximum of 100 copies to be used in the author’s institution. The copies must include the following acknowledgement: ‘This article has been published in the SIUJ: [full citation; link].’
As the distinction between commercial and non-commercial is not always clear, authors are strongly advised to seek permission from SIU for any use that may be considered to have a commercial aspect.
We ask the corresponding author to read the terms of the licence and then to grant this exclusive licence on behalf of all authors by indicating agreement to the following statement:
The corresponding author has the right to grant on behalf of all authors and does grant on behalf of all authors, an exclusive licence on a worldwide basis to the SIU and its licensees to permit this article (if accepted) to be published in the SIUJ and any other SIU products and publications and to exploit all subsidiary rights, as set out in our licence agreement.
Review and Decision
Most submissions will be reviewed by a senior editor within 2 weeks. Many manuscripts will be rejected at this point for a variety of reasons, including subject matter outside the scope of the SIUJ, flawed design, discredited or outdated methodology, poor organization or presentation, failure to conform to ethical requirements, and apparent plagiarism.The remaining manuscripts will be sent for peer review. The SIUJ uses a single-blind process: reviewers know the identity of the authors, but the authors are not told who has reviewed their manuscript, and SIUJ ensures that potentially identifying information is removed from comments sent to them. Reviewers are asked to make their recommendations within 10 days, after which a senior/specialist editor will consider their comments and recommend provisional acceptance dependent on satisfactory revision, acceptance without revision, or rejection. Authors should receive a final decision within 4 to 6 weeks of submission.